GERMAN STUDIES REVIEW: Volume 33, Number 3 (October 2010)
 
    Twenty Years German Unity I:
    A “Usable” Past at Last? The Politics of the Past in United Germany

    Ruth Wittlinger
    Durham University

    Steffi Boothroyd
    Northumbria University

    The two decades since unification have witnessed considerable changes in German collective memory. Whereas views about the place that the Nazi past should occupy in Germany’s historical consciousness were still very polarized a few years before the fall of the Wall, developments since unification have resulted in a past that is much more accommodating and allows an easier identification with the German nation. A more institutionalized and internationalized approach to the Nazi past, which incorporates the memory of German suffering, is increasingly complemented by a focus on positive aspects of German history, like the successes of the Bonn Republic, the peaceful East German revolution of 1989, and unification in 1990.
 
    Twenty Years German Unity II:

    Germany’s EU Policy: The Domestic Discourse

    Christiane Lemke
    Leibniz Universität Hannover and New York University

    The positioning of Germany in the process of European integration is best explained by the historical and cultural frames of politics. Leadership change in government 1998 and the domestic debate about the Lisbon Treaty of the EU in 2009 are test cases for Germany’s new approach to Europe. The domestic debates on European integration show that political decisions are framed within the context of the EU institutions, not against them. Compromise is a way of life in the EU, and Germany’s leadership is shaping integration as much as it is shaped by Europe. Twenty years after German unification the Euro-polity is firmly entrenched in German political life.
 
    Twenty Years German Unity III:
    Gendering Federalism—Federalizing Gender:
    Women’s Agencies and Policies in German Multilevel Governance


    Sabine Lang
    University of Washington

    Attempts to restructure German federalism in the aftermath of unification, under the auspices of increasing Länder autonomy, might have ambivalent effects on gender policies and women’s policy agencies. This article addresses how federalism affects gender equality politics, focusing on three contested issues: the turn from a strongly cooperative to a more competitive federalism; a weakening of the “steering capacity” of national level politics vis-à-vis the Länder through recent reforms; and the lack of “throughput” of EU policies to the state and regional levels.
 
    Twenty Years German Unity IV:
    Policy Transfer in the Unified Germany: From Imitation to Feedback Loops

    Helga A. Welsh
    Wake Forest University

    Policy transfer was a key element in the unification of both German states. Although a policy of “no experiments” initially prevailed, it proved to have multidimensional consequences that varied across policy sectors and included imitation, adaptation, and limited innovation. Later, triadic forces of unification, Europeanization, and globalization pressured and enabled a new wave of reforms. Depending on the policy area (e.g., welfare policy, municipal charters, education), these forces acted as a catalyst for reform, predicted developments, and exposed diffusion patterns in unified Germany, at times by resurrecting old ideas to new prominence.
 
    Twenty Years German Unity V:
    The Integration of Eastern German Political Elites since 1989

    Jennifer Yoder
    Colby College

    When Angela Merkel became chancellor, it may have seemed that easterners were becoming well integrated into united Germany’s national political leadership. Upon closer examination, very few national-level political leaders have come from the east. What explains the lack of integration and influence of eastern Germans in national politics? One way to answer that question is to consider the few easterners who have risen to the top of Germany’s political institutions, to identify whether particular factors have contributed to or impeded their successes.
 
    Twenty Years German Unity VI:
    Be Careful What You Pray for: Employment Profiles among East and West Germans

    Joyce Marie Mushaben
    University of Missouri-St. Louis

    Reflections on innere Einheit since 1990 have been dominated by talk of ”winner’s and losers,” but unification cannot be construed as a zero-sum game. Disparate economic structures are to blame for the emergence of East-West Parallelgesellschaften, although neither population “got what it prayed for”: Both have experienced dramatic changes in employment and social security, a looming demographic deficit, and cutbacks in public services. While easterners encountered significant disadvantages during the first 10 years of unity, they have already emerged from the tunnel of structural adjustment that westerners have only recently entered—and are thus better prepared to face challenges posed by an increasingly neo-liberal economic order.
 
    Altitude and Whiteness: Germanizing the Alps and Alpinizing the Germans, 1875–1935

    Edward Dickinson
    University of California, Davis

    In late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Germanophone Europe, racial theory was as much an aesthetic as a scientific doctrine. Race-“scientists” associated the perceived aesthetic qualities of various Central European landscapes with different aspects of racial mythology. In this process the Alps played a particularly important role as an aesthetic embodiment of Germanic racial destiny, which provided an “eternal” bridge from a presumed racial past to an imagined racial future.
 
    Sex, History, and Upward Mobility: Ernst Lubitsch’s Madame Dubarry/Passion, 1919

    Richard W. McCormick
    University of Minnesota

    Ernst Lubitsch’s (1892–1947) historical costume film Madame Dubarry (Germany, 1919; American release title: Passion) was an overwhelming success, leading ultimately to his departure for Hollywood in 1922. Many leftist critics saw it as a trivialization of the French Revolution. Kracauer wrote that the film “reduces the Revolution to a derivative of private passions” (49). But the film’s psycho-sexual dynamics do have a politics: they are very much connected to the politics of class, gender, ethnicity, and race. And, like many of Lubitsch’s comedies, this film is about an outsider’s drive for upward mobility.
 
    Revision and “Rebirth”: Commemoration of the Battle of Nations in Leipzig


    Jason Tebbe
    Stephen F. Austin State University

    The 1813 Battle of Leipzig inspired a century of conflicting commemorations, culminating in the unveiling of a massive monument in 1913. This structure intended to embody the Volk itself, and thus revealed the growth of a popular nationalism ambivalent towards the monarchy, which had consistently sought to downplay the battle’s significance and to emphasize loyalty to the Hohenzollern dynasty via commemoration. The disjuncture between popular and official commemoration of Leipzig, as well as the monument’s incorporation of völkisch motifs, reveals continuities in German nationalism that stretch beyond the ruptures of 1848, 1871, and 1918.
 
    Deutsche Siedlungspläne im Osmanischen Reich

    Fahri Türk
    Trakya Üniversitesi

    At the end of the nineteenth century, the Pan-German League and other German colonial associations advocated the settlement of German farmers in Ottoman Turkey. Even the founding of a Christian-German state in Palestine was debated, where a small German colony had existed since 1841. According to these plans, German farmers were to be settled along the route of the Bagdad Railway. The British opposed these German plans and promoted their own settlements, thereby internationalizing the issue. The Ottoman government tried to block these plans to forestall further interference by great powers in its internal affairs.
 
    Auf dem Karussell der Geschichte:
    Das Theresienstädter Kabarett zwischen Historie und Theater

    Martin Modlinger
    Robinson College, Cambridge University

    The Theresienstadt (Terezín) ghetto was, according to the inmates, both Jewish cultural capital of Europe and anteroom to hell. Thus the brilliant Terezín cabarets, which were at first tolerated and even encouraged by the SS, were soon abused for a campaign of embellishment designed to forestall an international intervention. Prisoner Kurt Gerron and his cabaret Karussell were forced to shoot a propaganda film concealing the murderous reality of the ghetto. Playwright Roy Kift has brought these events to the stage in his Camp Comedy, reflecting the inmates’ dilemmas and the nature of reality and illusion in the ghetto.
 
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